Asphalt surfacing provides a durable, low-noise, permeable road surface but unfortunately it can be prone to cracking and wear due to external forces including traffic load, movement of the subgrade material and seasonal temperature fluctuations.
Whether widening existing road to increase capacity, stabilizing existing embankments or creating new infrastructure, the need to minimize the land space needed for the works and reduce the need for removal of in situ materials is key to delivering cost-effective and sustainable schemes.
Passage of train wheels on a railway track causes a dynamic vertical load on the sleepers and ballast. This pumping action can cause subsoil to be pumped upwards into the ballast foundation, with the subsequent reduction of its bearing capacity.
Water buildup behind conventional retaining structures and bridge abutments can increase the applied loading and movements on the rear of the structure and may require thicker structures to resist the loading.
Soft foundation soils or potential cavities under road or railway embankments can cause differential settlements and long-drawn-out consolidation, critical deformations or even insufficient global stability.
Road traffic, trains, trams and construction traffic create vibrations that are transmitted through soil and concrete to adjacent structures. In densely populated urban areas this can have an impact on the health and well-being of residents as well as affecting the value of their property.